**Beyond Hawking**

By Lars A. Wern

Stephen Hawking
has been the Albert
Einstein of our time. He became recognized as a prominent physicist who
popularized the mysteries of the universe. But his thinking resulted, unlike the
thoughts of Einstein, neither in mass destruction weapons nor in any products
used in our daily life. And the universe seems more mysterious now at his death
than when Einstein died. While another such superstar in science is highly
unlikely, perhaps instead a
skunkworks project
team will in a near future get fame from pioneering results at some of the
frontiers on which some light is shed in the following lines.

Many physicists believe, like Hawking and Einstein, in the possibility of
explaining all the physical forces by means of "a
theory of everything". Considered the holy grail of physics, it would be
something to celebrate like the first steps in 1953 on the highest peak of Mount
Everest and in 1969 on the surface of the Moon. However, the Nobel laureate
Steven Weinberg has
expressed a common opinion of the leading authorities: "The more the universe
seems comprehensible, the more it also seems pointless". Einstein had to abandon
a static model of the universe and Hawking abandoned a dynamic model with a nice
symmetry for an oscillation back and forwards in time. Presently, a pointless
universe is proposed as existing either in an infinite series as described by
Roger Penrose.
Paul Steinhardt and others or in a multiverse as described by
Andrei Linde.

While time has been described as an illusion in line with the view that the
universe seems pointless, a wave interpretation of its flow makes everything
less mysterious. Physicists describe elementary charges as having infinite
existence if left alone and the same goes for photons. A continuous wave model
is applicable on both these elementary particles so why not try it also on
corresponding yet to be discovered elementary particles of gravity? Could that
open a door to make all the physical forces described by a unified field theory
as sought in vain by Einstein and others? I showed some years ago in the article
Beyond Higgs
how to motivate an extended use of the
Einstein-Planck equation
so as to develop a wave theory of time, WTT. It offers a key to interpret the
nature of dark matter and of the huge difference in strength between
electromagnetic forces and gravitation. And it makes the so-called big number
coincidences derivable instead of "explained" by
anthropic reasoning.

Like a ring, Einstein's static model of the universe was limited but endless
and definitively not pointless. A rolling ring can be used to describe a
continuous wave that is
sinusoidal and that will in the following lines be used to to do what has
been said to be impossible, namely to describe time itself. In a most simple
wave model of a cosmic flow of time** t**c, a small measure of time **dt**c
varies with regard to a reference measure of time **dt**r as expressed by the
equation **dt**c**/dt**r = **sin (2π t**c**/T) **where **T** is
the wave period and **dt**r is equal to the positive peak value of **dt**c.
If the cosmic expansion with time is chosen to be described by means of a
reference flow of time **t**r as represented by atomic clocks, it shows the
positive acceleration expressed by the estimated value of Einstein's
cosmological constant Lambda used today for describing the apparent accelerated
expansion of space. That acceleration is predicted by the equality between the
ratio dtc/dtr and, as derived from the sine wave function above, the ratio
between **2** and the sum of **exp** **(2π t**r**/T)** and **exp
-(2π t**r**/T)**. The cosmic expansion is conceivable, however, without any
atom clocks generating the reference time tr. In order to interpret the
intrinsic nature of the cosmic expansion, it is therefore logical to apply the
cosmic flow of time tc instead of the reference time tr making the positive
acceleration an illusion and the physical existence of a force counteracting
gravity and represented by Lambda simply an unnecessary assumption.

Einstein described the gravitational force as curved spacetime. WTT
interprets that curvature as due to the continuous wave nature of time where the
period **T** is in the order of 10 exp 20 s for a yet to be discovered
elementary particle of gravity and 10 exp -20 s for the elementary charge
underlying the atomic clocks. In a more developed version of WTT, the ring-like
two-dimensional model becomes a three-dimensional continuous wave model of time
**t**c related to the
Everett many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics asserting the
objective reality
of the universal
wavefunction and challenging the view that the universe is pointless.

Lars A. Wern